William B. Parker, Ph.D. Publications

Bertino, J.R.; Waud, W.R.; Parker, W.B., Lubin, M. Targeting tumors that lack methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) activity: Current strategies. Cancer Biol Ther. 11: 627-632. 2011.

Tai, C.K.; Wang, W.; Lai, Y.H.; Logg, C.R.; Parker, W.B.; Li, Y.F.; Hong, J.S.; Sorscher, E.J.; Chen, T.C.; Kasahara, N. Enhanced efficiency of prodrug activation therapy by tumor-selectively replicating retrovirus vectors armed with the Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Cancer Gene Therapy, 17: 614-623. 2011.

Parker, W.B.; Allan, P.W.; Waud W.R.; Hong J.S.; Sorscher E.J. (2010) Effect of expression of adenine phosphoribosyltransferase on the in vivo anti-tumor activity of prodrugs activated by E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Cancer Gene Therapy, 18:390-398, 2011.

Kang, Y.N.; Zhang, Y.; Allan, P.W.; Parker, W.B.; Ting, J.W.; Chang, C.Y.; and Ealick, S.E. Crystal structure of grouper iridovirus purine nucleoside phosphorylase. Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography, 66: 155-162. 2010.

Hassan, A.E.A.; Parker, W.B.; Allan, P.W.; Secrist III, J.A. Regioselective metalation of 6-methylpurines: synthesis of fluoromethyl purines and related nucleosides for suicide gene therapy of cancer. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids 28: 642-656. 2009.

Tiwari, K.N.; Shortnacy-Fowler, A.; Parker, W.B.; Waud W.R.; Secrist III, J.A. Synthesis and anticancer evaluation of 4'-C-methyl-2'-fluoro arabino nucleosides. Nucleosides, Nucleotides and Nucleic Acids, 28: 657-677. 2009.

Chung, D.H.; Strouse, J.J.; Sun; Y.; Arterburn, J.B.; Parker, W.B.; Jonsson, C.B. Synthesis and anti-Hantaan virus activity of N1-3-fluorophenyl-inosine. Antiviral Research, 83: 80-85. 2009. PMC2796853

Parker, W.B.; Shaddix, S.C.; Gilbert, K.S.; Shepherd, R.V.; Waud, W.R. Enhancement of the in vivo antitumor activity of clofarabine by 1-β-D-[4-thio-arabinofuranosyl]-cytosine. Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology, 64: 253-261. 2009.

Chung, D.H.; Kumarapperuma, S.C.; Sun, Y.; Li, Q.; Chu, Y.K.; Arterburn, J.B.; Parker, W.B., Smith, J.; Spik, K.; Ramanathan, H.N.; Schmaljohn, C.S.; Jonsson, C.B. Synthesis of 1-Β-D-ribofuranosyl-3-ethynyl-1,2,4]triazole and its in vitro and in vivo efficacy against Hantavirus. Antiviral Res. 79:19-27. 2008.

Long, M.C.; Shaddix, S.C.; Moukha-chafiq,Q.; Maddry, J.A.; Nagy, L.; Parker, W.B. Structure-activity reltionship for adenosine kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis II. Modifications to the ribofuranosyl moiety. Biochem. Pharmacol., 75:1588-1600. 2008.

Kumarapperuma, S.C.; Sun Y, Jeselnik, M.; Chung, K.; Parker, W.B., Jonsson, C.B.; Arterburn, J.B. Structural effects on the phosphorylation of 3-substituted 1-Β-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazoles by human adenosine kinase. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters 17: 3203-3207. 2007.

Sun, Y.; Chung, D.H.;, Chu, Y.K.; Jonsson, C.B.; Parker, W.B. Antiviral activity of ribavirin against Hantaan virus correlates with production of ribavirin-5'-triphosphate, not with inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 51: 84-88. 2007.

Long, M.C.; Allan, P.W.; Luo, M.Z.; Liu, M.C.; Sartorelli, A.C.; Parker, W.B. Evaluation of 3-deaza-adenosine analogs as ligands for adenosine kinase and inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth. J. Antimicrob. Chemotherap. 59: 118-121. 2007.

Griffon, J.F.; Shaddix, S.C.; Parker, W.B.; Al-Madhoun, A.S.; Eriksson, S.; Montgomery, J.A.; and Secrist III, J.A. Synthesis and biological activity of some 4'-C-hydroxymethyl-α- and -Β-D-arabino-pentofuranosyl pyrimidine nucleosides. Coll. Czech. Chem. Commun. 71: 1063-1087. 2006.

Roy, A.M.; Tiwari, K.N.; Parker, W.B.; Secrist III, J.A.; Li, R.; Qu, Z.; Anti-angiogenic activity of 4'-thio-Β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (T-araC). Mol. Cancer Therapeutics. 5: 2218-2224. 2006.

Long, M.C.; Parker, W.B.; Structure-activity relationship for nucleoside analogs as inhibitors or substrates of adenosine kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. I. Modifications to the adenine moiety. Biochem Pharmacol. 71: 1671-1682. 2006.

Thottassery, J.V.; Westbrook, L.; Someya, H.; Parker, W.B. C-Abl independent p73 stabilization during gemcitabine or 4'-thio-Β-D-arabinofuranosyl cytosine (T-araC) induced apoptosis in wild-type and p53-null colorectal cancer cells. Mol. Cancer Therapeut. 5: 400-410. 2006.

Someya, H.; Waud, W.R., Parker, W.B. Long intracellular retention of; 4'-thio-arabinofuranosylcytosine 5'-triphosphate as a critical factor for the anti-solid tumor activity of 4'-thio-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 57: 772-780. 2006.

Wang, Y.; Long, M.C.; Ranganathan, S.; Escuyer, V.; Parker, W.B.; Li, R. Overexpression, purification, and crystallographic analysis of a unique adenosine kinase from M. tuberculosis. Acta Crystallographia F61: 553-557. 2005.

Bebok, Z.; Collawn, J.; Wakefield, J.; Parker, W.B.; Varga, K.; Li, Y.; Sorscher, E.J.; Clancy, J.P. Failure of cAMP agonists to activate rescued ΔF508 CFTR in airway epithelial monolayers. J. Physiology 569: 601-615. 2005.

Parker, W.B.; Allan, P.W.; Ealick, S.E.; Sorscher, E.J.; Hassan, A.E.A.l; Silamkoti, A.V.; Fowler, A.T.; Waud, W.R.; Secrist III, J.A. Design and evaluation of 5'-modified nucleoside analogs as prodrugs for an E. colipurine nucleoside phosphorylase mutant. Nucleosides, Nucleotides, & Nucleic Acids. 24: 387-392. 2005.

Silamkoti, A.V.; Allan, P.W.; Hassan, A.E.; Fowler, A.T.; Sorscher, E.J.. Parker, W.B.; Secrist III, J.A. Synthesis and biological activity of 2-fluoro adenine and 6-methyl purine nucleoside analogs as prodrugs for suicide gene therapy of cancer. Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids. 24: 881-885. 2005.

Rose, J.D.; Parker, W.B.; Secrist III, J.A. Bis(tBuSATE) phosphotriester prodrugs of 8-azaguanosine and 6-methylpurine riboside; bis(pom) phosphotriester prodrugs of 2'-deoxy-4'-thioadenosine and its corresponding 9 alpha anomer. Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Nucleic Acids. 24: 809-813. 2005

Strouse, J.J.; Jeselnik, M.; Tapaha, F.; Jonsson, C.B.; Parker, W.B.; Arterburn, J.B. Copper catalyzed arylation with boronic acids for the synthesis of N1-aryl purine nucleosides. Tetrahedron letters 46: 5699-5702. 2005.

Bharara, B., Sorscher, E.J.; Gillespie, G.Y.; Lindsey, J.R.; Hong, J.S.; Curlee, K.V.; Allan, P.W.; Gadi, V.K.; Alexander, S.A.; Secrist III, J.A.; Parker, W.B.; Waud. W.R. Antibiotic-mediated chemoprotection enhances adaptation of E. coli PNP for herpes simplex virus based glioma therapy. Human Gene Therapy 16: 339-347. 2005.

Hong, J.S.; Waud, W.R.; Levasseur, D.N.; Townes, T.M.; Wen, H.; McPherson, S.A.; Moore, B.A.; Bebok, Z.; Allan, P.W.; Secrist, III, J.A.; Parker, W.B.; Sorscher, E.J. Excellent in vivo bystander activity of fludarabine phosphate against human glioma xenografts that express the E. coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene. Cancer Res. 64: 6610-6615. 2004.

Feng, J.Y.; Parker, W.B.; Krajewski, M.L.; Deville-Bonne, D.; Veron, M.; Krishan, P.; Cheng, Y.C.; Borroto-Esoda, K. Anabolism of amodoxovir: Phosphorylation of dioxolane guanosine and its 5'-phosphates by mammalian phosphotransferases. Biochem Pharmacol. 68: 1879-1888. 2004.

Parker, W.B.; Barrow, E.W.; Allan, P.W.; Shaddix, S.C.; Long, M.C.; Barrow, W.W.; Bansal, N.; Maddry, J.A. Metabolism of 2-methyladenosine in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis 84: 327-336. 2004.

Bennett, E.M.; Anand, R.; Allan, P.W.; Hassan, A.E.A.; Hong, J.S.; Levasseur, D.N.; McPherson, D.T.; Parker, W.B.; Secrist III, J.A.; Sorscher, E.J.; Townes, T.M.; Waud, W.R.; Ealick, S.E. Designer Gene Therapy Using an Escherichia coli Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase/Prodrug System. Chemistry & Biology 10: 1173-1181. 2003.

Bennett, E.M.; Li, C.; Allan, P.W.; Parker, W.B.; Ealick, S.E. Structural basis for substrate specificity of Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase. J Biol. Chem. 278: 47110-47118. 2003.

Long, M.C.; Escuyer, V.; Parker, W.B. Identification and characterization of adenosine kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 185: 6548-6555. 2003.

Barrow, E.W.; Westbrook, L.; Bansal, N.; Suling, W.J.; Maddry, J.A.; Parker, W.B.; Barrow, W.W. Antimycobacterial activity of 2-methyl-adenosine. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 52: 801-808. 2003.

Hassan AE, Parker, W.B., Allan PW, Montgomery JA, Secrist III, J.A. (2003) Selective methalation of 6-methylpurines: synthesis of 6-fluoromethylpurines and related nucleosides. Nucleosides, Nucleotides, & Nucleic Acids. 22: 747-749.

Someya H, Shaddix SC, Tiwari KN, Secrist III, J.A., Parker, W.B. (2003) Phosphorylation of 4'-thio-arabinofuransoylcytosine and its analogs by human deoxycytidine kinase. J. Pharmacology Experimental Therapeutics. 304: 1314-1322.

Gadi VK, Alexander SD, Waud WR, Allan PW, Parker, W.B., Sorscher EJ (2003) A long-acting suicide gene toxin, 6-methylpurine, inhibits slow growing tumors after a single administration. J. Pharmacology Experimental Therapeutics. 304: 1280-1284.

Parker, W.B., Allan PW, Hassan AEA, Secrist III, J.A., Sorscher EJ, Waud WR (2003) Anti-tumor activity of 2-fluoro-2 -deoxyadenosine against tumors that express E. colipurine nucleoside phosphorylase. Cancer Gene Therapy 10: 23-29.

Rose JD, Parker, W.B., Someya H, Shaddix SC, Montgomery JA, Secrist III, J.A. (2002) Enhancement of nucleoside cytotoxicity through nucleotide prodrugs. J. Med. Chem. 45: 4505-4512.

Shewach DS, Murphy PJ, Robinson BW, Vuletich J, Boucher PD, Blobaum AL, Serbe L, Secrist III, J.A., Parker, W.B. (2002) Multi-log cytotoxicity of carbocyclic 2'-deoxyguanosine in HSV-TK-expressing human tumor cells. Human Gene Therapy 13: 543-551.

Chen C-K, Barrow EW, Allan PW, Bansal N, Maddry JA, Suling WJ, Barrow WW, Parker, W.B. (2002) Biochemical and genetic characterization of 2-methyl-adenosine in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Microbiology 148: 289-295.

Tiwari KN, Shortnacy-Fowler AT, Cappellacci L, Waud WR, Parker, W.B., Montgomery JA, Secrist III, J.A. (2001) Synthesis and structure activity relationship of 5-substituted-4'-thio- -D-arabinofuranosylcytosines. Nucleosides, Nucleotides, & Nucleic Acids 19: 2005-2017.

Gadi VK, Alexander SD, Kudlow JE, Allan P, Parker, W.B., Sorscher EJ (2001) In vivo sensitization of ovarian tumors to chemotherapy by expression of E. colipurine nucleoside phosphorylase in a small fraction of cells. Gene Therapy 7: 1738-1743.

Parker, W.B., Shaddix SC, Rose LM, Waud WR, Shewach DS, Tiwari KN, Secrist III, J.A. (2000) Metabolism of 4'-thio- -D-arabinofuranosylcytosine in CEM cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 60: 1925-1932.

Tendian SW, Parker, W.B. (2000) Interaction of deoxyguanosine nucleotide analogs with human telomerase. Mol. Pharmacol. 57: 695-699.

Parker, W.B., Shaddix SC, Rose LM, Pham PT, Vince R (2000) Metabolism of O6-propyl and N6-propyl-carbovir in CEM cells. Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids 19: 795-804.

Tiwari KN, Shortnacy-Fowler AT, Cappellacci L, Parker, W.B., Waud WR, Montgomery JA, Secrist III, J.A. (2000) Synthesis of 4'-thio- -D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (4'-thio-araC) and comparison of its anticancer activity with that of ara-C. Nucleosides, Nucleotides, & Nucleic Acids 19: 329-340.

Secrist III, J.A., Parker, W.B., Allan PW, Bennett LL Jr, Waud WR, Truss JW, Fowler AT, Montgomery JA, Ealick SE, Wells AH, Gillespie GY, Gadi VK, Sorscher EJ (1999) Gene therapy of cancer: Activation of nucleoside prodrugs with E. colipurine nucleoside phosphorylase. Nucleosides Nucleotides 18: 745-757.

Parker, W.B., Shaddix SC, Rose LM, Shewach DS, Hertel LW, Secrist III, J.A., Montgomery JA, Bennett LL Jr (1999) Comparison of the mechanism of cytotoxicity of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- -D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine, 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- -D-ribofuranosyl)adenine, and 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2,2-difluoro- -D-ribofuranosyl)adenine in CEM cells. Mol. Pharmacol. 55: 515-520.

Bennett LL Jr, Allan PW, Arnett G, Shealy YF, Shewach DS, Mason WS, Fourel I, Parker, W.B. (1998) Metabolism in human cells of the D and L-enantiomers of the carbocyclic analog of 2 -deoxyguanosine. Substrate activity with deoxycytidine kinase, mitochondrial deoxyguanosine kinase, and 5'-nucleotidase. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 42: 1045-1051.

Parker, W.B., Allan PW, Shaddix SC, Rose LM, Speegle HF, Gillespie GY, Bennett LL Jr (1998) Metabolism and metabolic actions of 6-methylpurine and 2-fluoroadenine in human cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 55: 1673-1681.

Weldon RA Jr, Parker, W.B., Sakalian M, Hunter E (1998) D-type retrovirus capsid assembly and release are active events requiring ATP. J. Virology 72: 3098-3106.

Hughes BW, King SA, Allan PW, Parker, W.B., Sorscher EJ (1998) Cell to cell contact is not required for bystander cell killing by E. colipurine nucleoside phosphorylase. J. Biol. Chem. 273: 2322-2328.

Parker, W.B., King SA, Allan PW, Bennett LL Jr, Secrist III, J.A., Montgomery JA, Gilbert KS, Waud WR, Wells AH, Gillespie GY, Sorscher EJ (1997) In vivo gene therapy of cancer using E. colipurine nucleoside phosphorylase. Human Gene Therapy 8: 1637-1644.

Parker, W.B., Shaddix SC, Vince R, Bennett LL Jr (1997) Lack of mitochondrial toxicity in CEM cells treated with carbovir. Antiviral Res. 34: 131-136.

Walker L, Kulomaa MS, Bebok Z, Parker, W.B., Allan PW, Logan J, Huang Z, Reynolds RC, King S, Sorscher EJ (1996) Development of drug targeting based on recombinant expression of the chicken avidin gene. J. Drug Targeting 4: 41-49.

Sandberg JA, Binienda Z, Lipe G, Rose LM, Parker, W.B., Ali SF, Slikker W Jr (1995) Placental transfer and fetal disposition of 2 ,3 -dideoxycytidine (ddC) and 2 ,3 -dideoxyinosine (ddI) in the rhesus monkey. Drug Metab. Disp. 23: 881-884.

Vince R, Kilama J, Pham PT, Beers SA, Bowden BJ, Keith KA, Parker, W.B. (1995) 6-Substituted derivatives of carbovir: anti-HIV activity. Nucleosides Nucleotides 14: 1703-1708.

Parker, W.B., Shaddix SC, Rose LM, Tiwari KN, Montgomery JA, Secrist III, J.A., Bennett LL Jr (1995) Metabolism and metabolic actions of 4 -thiothymidine in L1210 cells. Biochem. Pharmacol. 50: 687-695.

Hughes BW, Wells AH, Bebok Z, Gadi VK, Garver RI Jr, Parker, W.B., Sorscher EJ (1995) Bystander killing of melanoma cells using the human tyrosinase promoter to express the Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene. Cancer Res. 55: 3339-3345.

Secrist III, J.A., Parker, W.B., Tiwari KN, Messini L, Shaddix SC, Rose LM, Bennett LL Jr., Montgomery JA (1995) The synthesis and biological activity of certain 4 -thionucleosides. Nucleosides Nucleotides, 14: 675-686.

Sorscher EJ, Peng S, Bebok Z, Allan PW, Bennett LL Jr, Parker, W.B. (1994) Tumor cell bystander killing in colonic carcinoma utilizing the E. coliDeo D gene to generate toxic purines. Gene Therapy 1: 233-238.

Elliott RD, Rener GA, Riordan JM, Secrist III, J.A., Bennett LL Jr, Parker, W.B., Montgomery JA (1994) Phosphonate analogs of carbocyclic nucleotides. J. Med. Chem. 37: 739-744.

Parker, W.B., Allan PW, Niwas S, Montgomery JA, Bennett LL Jr (1994) Effect of 9-benzyl-9-deazaguanine, a potent inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, on the cytotoxicity and metabolism of 6-thio-2 -deoxyguanosine. Cancer Res. 54: 1742-1745.

White EL, Parker, W.B., Ross LJ, Shannon WM (1993) Lack of synergy in the inhibition of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase by combinations of the 5 -triphosphates of various anti-HIV nucleoside analogs. Antiviral Res. 22: 295-308.

Bennett LL Jr, Parker, W.B., Allan PW, Rose LM, Shealy YF, Secrist JA, III, Montgomery JA, Arnett G, Kirkman RL, Shannon WM (1993) Phosphorylation of the enantiomers of the carbocyclic analog of 2 -deoxyguanosine in cells infected with herpes simplex virus type I and in uninfected cells. Lack of enantiomeric selectivity with the viral thymidine kinase. Mol. Pharmacol. 44: 1258-1266.

Parker, WB, Shaddix SC, Bowdon BJ, Rose LM, Vince R, Shannon WM, Bennett LL, Jr. (1993) Metabolism of carbovir, a potent inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and its effect on cellular metabolism. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37: 1004-1009.

Parker, W.B., White EL, Shaddix SC, Ross LJ, Secrist III, J.A. (1992) Interference with HIV-1 reverse transcriptase catalyzed DNA chain elongation by the 5 -triphosphate of the carbocyclic analog of 2 -deoxyguanosine. Antiviral Res. 19: 325-332.

Parker, W.B., Shaddix SC, Allan PW, Arnett G, Rose LM, Shannon WM, Shealy YF, Montgomery JA, Secrist III, J.A., Bennett LL Jr. (1992) Incorporation of the carbocyclic analog of 2 -deoxyguanosine into the DNA of herpes simplex virus and of HEp-2 cells infected with herpes simplex virus. Mol. Pharmacol. 41: 245-251.

Reynolds RC, Crooks PA, Parker, W.B., Maddry JA, Montgomery JA, Secrist III, J.A. (1991) Synthesis and antiviral activity of 5 -amino-3 -azido-3 ,5 -dideoxythymidine. J. Biopharmaceutical Sciences 2: 195-203.

Parker, W.B., Shaddix SC, Chang CH, White EL, Rose LM, Brockman RW, Shortnancy AT, Montgomery JA, Secrist III, J.A., Bennett LL Jr. (1991) Effects of 2-chloro-9-(2-deoxy-2-fluoro- -D-arabinofuranosyl)adenine on K562 cellular metabolism and the inhibition of human ribonucleotide reductase and DNA polymerases by its 5 -triphosphate. Cancer Res. 51: 2386-2394.

Parker, W.B., White EL, Shaddix SC, Ross LJ, Buckheit RW Jr, Germany JM, Secrist III, J.A., Vince R, Shannon WM (1991) Mechanism of inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type I reverse transcriptase and human DNA polymerases , , and by the 5 -triphosphates of carbovir, 3 -azido-3 -deoxythymidine, 2 ,3 -dideoxyguanosine, and 3 -deoxythymidine. A novel RNA template for the evaluation of antiretroviral drugs. J. Biol. Chem. 266: 1754-1762.

Wotring LL, Townsend LB, Jones LM, Borysko KZ, Gildersleeve DL, Parker, W.B. (1990) Dual mechanisms of inhibition of DNA synthesis by triciribine. Cancer Res. 50: 4891-4899.

Nishizawa M, Yamagishi T, Dutschman GE, Parker, W.B., Bodner AJ, Kilkuskie RE, Cheng YC, Lee KH (1989) Anti-AIDS agents 1: Isolation and characterization of four new tetra galloylquinic acids as a new class of HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors from tannic acid. J. Nat. Prod. 52: 762-768.

White EL, Parker, W.B., Macy LJ, Shaddix SC, McCaleb G, Secrist III, J.A., Vince R, Shannon WM (1989) Comparison of the effect of carbovir, AZT, and dideoxynucleoside triphosphates on the activity of human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase and selected human polymerases. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 161: 393-398.

Parker, W.B., Nishizawa M, Fisher MH, Ye N, Lee KH, Cheng YC (1989) Characterization of a novel inhibitor of human DNA polymerases: 3,4,5-tri-O-galloylquinic acid. Biochem. Pharmacol. 38: 3759-3765.

Parker, W.B., Bapat AR, Shen JX, Townsend AJ, Cheng YC (1988) Interaction of 2-halogenated dATP analogs (F, Cl, and Br) with human DNA polymerases, DNA primase, and ribonucleotide reductase. Mol. Pharmacol. 34: 485-491.

Parker, W.B., Cheng YC (1987) Inhibition of human DNA primase by nucleoside triphosphates and their arabinofuranosyl analogs. Mol. Pharmacol. 31: 146-151.

Parker, W.B., Kennedy KA, Klubes P. (1987) Dissociation of 5-fluorouracil-induced DNA fragmentation from either its incorporation into DNA or its cytotoxicity in murine T-lymphoma (S-49) cells. Cancer Res. 47: 979-982.

Parker, W.B., Klubes P (1985) Enhancement by uridine of the anabolism of 5-fluorouracil in mouse T-lymphoma (S-49) cells. Cancer Res. 45: 4249-4256.

Saito K, Parker, W.B., Menzel DB (1982) Disruption of phospholipid metabolism by paraquat in cultured pneumocytes. J. Tox. Env. Health 9: 527-534.

Parker, W.B. Enzymology of purine and pyrimidine antimetabolites used in the treatment of cancer. Chemical Reviews 109: 2880-2893. 2009. PMC2827868

Secrist III, J.A.; Thottassery, J.V.; Parker, W.B. Clofarabine: Design to approval. In Modified Nucleosides: in Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Medicine (P. Herdewijn, eds.) Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, pp. 631-646. 2008.

Parker, W.B.; Long, M.C. Purine metabolism in Mycobacterium tuberculosis as a target for drug development. Current Pharmaceutical Design 13: 599-608. 2007.

Zhang, Y.; Parker, W.B., Sorscher, E.J.; Ealick, S.E. PNP anticancer gene therapy. Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry 5: 1259-1274. 2005.

Parker, W.B. Metabolism and anti-viral activity of ribavirin. Virus Res. 107: 165-171. 2005.

Parker, W.B.; Secrist III, J.A.; and Waud, W.R. Purine nucleoside antimetabolites in development for the treatment of cancer. Curr. Opin. Investig. Drugs 5: 592-596. 2004.

Curlee, K.V.; Parker, W.B.; and Sorscher, E.J. Tumor sensitization to purine analogs by E. coli PNP. Methods Mol. Med. 90: 223-246. 2004.

Parker, W.B. Inhibitors of nucleoside diphosphate reductase. In Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents (William O. Foye, Ed) , Washington, DC., pp. 66-71. 1995.

Parker, W.B.; and Cheng, Y.C. Disruption of energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. In Neurotoxicology; Approaches and Methods (L.W. Chang and W. Slikker Jr., eds.) Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 483-490. 1995.

Parker, W.B.; and Cheng, Y.C. Mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogs. J. NIH Res. 6: 57-61. 1994.

Parker, W.B.; and Cheng, Y.C. Metabolism and mechanism of action of 5-fluorouracil. Pharmac. Ther. 48: 381-395. 1990.